Born in April 25, 1949 in Paris. Attended France's prestigious Institute for Political Studies (Sciences Po). Received BA in public law and PhD in economics at the Universite Paris X (Nanterre). In 1977-1981, he served as an assistant professor at University of Nancy-II and University of Nanterre. He became the member of National Assembly in 1986. Then he was assigned as Junior Minister for Industry and Foreign Trade in 1991. After serving as Mayor of Sarcelles, he became Finance minister from 1997 to 1999. Since then, he taught economics at Sciences Po. In 2007, he was elected to be the managing director of the IMF, and resigned as IMF head in 2011. Since 2013, he serves as a board member of the Russian Regional Development Bank and a board member of the Russian Direct Investment Fund.